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Christoph Kolumbus

italienisch: Cristoforo Colombo, spanisch: Cristóbal Colón,
portugiesisch: Cristóvão Colombo, latinisiert: Christophorus
Columbus, englisch: Christopher Columbus
* um 1451 in der Republik Genua; † 20. Mai 1506
in Valladolid , Königreich Kastilien

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 06. Oktober 2021

Die folgende Darstellung stammt aus der Feder des Christoph Kolumbus selbst. Es ist eine Art Rechenschaftsbericht an die Katholische Königin Isabel. Er belegt die Servilität des Seefahrers gegenüber seiner Geldgeberin, aber auch seine Gier nach Reichtum und Titel.

Zunächst der Bericht des Kolumbus in englischer Übersetzung. Das spanische Original folgt weiter unten.

from: The Christopher Columbus Journal (1492)

"This present year of 1492, after Your Highnesses had brought to an end the war with the Moors who ruled in Europe and had concluded the war in the very great city of Granada, where this present year on the second day of the month of January I saw the Royal Standards of Your Highnesses placed by force of arms on the towers of the Alhambra, which is the fortress of the said city; and I saw the Moorish King come out to the gates of the city and kiss the Royal Hands of Your Highnesses and of the Prince my Lord; and later in that same month, because of the report that I had given to Your Highnesses about the lands of India and about a prince who is called "Grand Khan," which means in our Spanish language "King of Kings"; how, many times, he and his predecessors had sent to Rome to ask for men learned in our Holy Faith in order that they might instruct him in it and how the Holy Father had never provided them; and thus so many peoples were lost, falling into idolatry and accepting false and harmful religions; and Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians and Princes, lovers and promoters of the Holy Christian Faith, and enemies of the false doctrine of Mahomet and of all idolatries and heresies, you thought of sending me, Christobal Colon, to the said regions of India to see the said princes and the peoples and the lands, and the characteristics of the lands and of everything and to see how their conversion to our Holy Faith might be undertaken. And you commanded that I should not go to the East by land, by which way it is customary to go, but by the route to the West, by which route we do not know for certain that anyone previously has passed. So, after having expelled all the Jews from all of your Kingdoms and Dominions, in the same month of January Your Highnesses commanded me to go, with a suitable fleet, to the said regions of India. And for that you granted me great favors and ennobled me so that from then on I might call myself "Don" and would be Grand Admiral of the Ocean Sea and Viceroy and perpetual Governor of all the islands and lands that I might discover and gain and [that] from now on might be discovered and gained in the Ocean Sea; and likewise my eldest son would succeed me and his son him, from generation to generation forever.

And I left the city of Granada on the twelfth day of May in the same year of 1492 on Saturday, and I came to the town of Palos, which is a seaport, where I fitted out three vessels very well suited for such exploits; and I left the said port, very well provided with supplies and with many seamen, on the third day of August of the said year, on a Friday, half an hour before sunrise; and I took the route to Your Highnesses' Canary Islands, which are in the said Ocean Sea, in order from there to take my course and sail so far that I would reach the Indies and give Your Highnesses' message to those princes and thus carry out that which you had commanded me to do. And for this purpose I thought of writing on this whole voyage, very diligently, all that I would do and see and experience, as will be seen further along."

Fünf Monate nach seiner Abreise aus Granada erreichte Christoph Kolumbus die bis heute so genannten "West-Indischen Inseln". Dies ist sein Bericht über seinen ersten Landgang, auf dem er eine Insel — ohne Absprache mit deren Bewohner — für die Katholischen Könige Spaniens in Besitz nimmt.

Thursday 11 October

"He [sometimes Columbus refers to himself in the third person] steered west-southwest. They took much water aboard, more than they had taken in the whole voyage. They saw petrels and a green bulrush near the ship. The men of the caravel Pinta saw a cane and a stick, and took on board another small stick that appeared to have been worked with iron, and a piece of cane, and other vegetation originating on land, and a small plank. The men of the caravel Niña also saw other signs of land and a small stick loaded with barnacles. With these signs everyone breathed more easily and cheered up. On this day, up to sunset, they made 27 leagues.

After sunset he steered on his former course to the west. They made about 12 miles each hour and, until two hours after midnight, made about 90 miles, which is twenty-two leagues and a half. And because the caravel Pinta was a better sailor and went ahead of the Admiral it found land and made the signals that the Admiral had ordered. A sailor named Rodrigo de Triana saw this land first, although the Admiral, at the tenth hour of the night, while he was on the sterncastle saw a light, although it was something so faint that he did not wish to affirm that it was land. But he called Pero Gutierrez, the steward of the king's dais, and told him that there seemed to be a light, and for him to look: and thus he did and saw it. He also told Rodrigo Sanchez de Segovia, whom the king and queen were sending as veedor of the fleet, who saw nothing because he was not in a place where he could see it. After the Admiral said it, it was seen once or twice; and it was like a small wax candle that rose and lifted up, which to few seemed to be an indication of land. But the Admiral was certain that they were near land, because of which when they recited the salve, which sailors in their own way are accustomed to recite and sing, all being present, the Admiral entreated and admonished them to keep a good lookout on the forecastle and to watch carefully for land; and that to the man who first told him that he saw land he would later give a silk jacket in addition to the other rewards that the sovereigns had promised, which were ten thousand maravedis as an annuity to whoever should see it first. At two hours after midnight the land appeared, from which they were about two leagues distant. They hauled down all the sails and kept only the treo, which is the mainsail without bonnets, and jogged on and off, passing time until daylight Friday, when they reached an islet of the Lucayas, which was called Guanaham in the language of the Indians. Soon they saw naked people; and the Admiral went ashore in the armed launch, and Martin Alonso Pinzon and his brother Vicente Anes, who was captain of the Niña. The Admiral brought out the royal banner and the captains two flags with the green cross, which the Admiral carried on all the ships as a standard, with an F and a Y, and over each letter a crown, one on one side and the other on the other. Thus put ashore they saw very green trees and many ponds and fruits of various kinds. The Admiral called to the two captains and to the others who had jumped ashore and to Rodrigo Descobedo, the escrivano of the whole fleet, and to Rodrigo Sanchez de Segovia; and he said that they should be witnesses that, in the presence of all, he would take, as in fact he did take, possession of the said island for the king and for the queen his lords, making the declarations that were required, and which at more length are contained in the testimonials made there in writing. Soon many people of the island gathered there."

Es folgt eine erste Beschreibung der Inselbewohner, die nackt sind und freundlich, die sich über Geschenke freuen, die — wie Kolumbus ausdrücklich betont — keinen Wert darstellen, ihrerseits Geschenke erwidern und kein Eisen kennen.

What follows are the very words of the Admiral in his book about his first voyage to, and discovery of, these Indies. "I", he says, "in order that they would be friendly to us &mdash: because I recognized that they were people who would be better freed and converted to our Holy Faith by love than by force — to some of them I gave red caps, and glass beads which they put on their chests, and many other things of small value, in which they took so much pleasure and became so much our friends that it was a marvel. Later they came swimming to the ships' launches where we were and brought us parrots and cotton thread in balls and javelins and many other things, and they traded them to us for other things which we gave them, such as small glass beads and bells. In sum, they took everything and gave of what they had very willingly. But it seemed to me that they were a people very poor in everything. All of them go around as naked as their mothers bore them; and the women also, although I did not see more than one quite young girl. And all those that I saw were young people, for none did I see of more than 30 years of age. They are very well formed, with handsome bodies and good faces. Their hair coarse — almost like the tail of a horse-and short. T hey wear their hair down over their eyebrows except for a little in the back which they wear long and never cut. Some of them paint themselves with black, and they are of the color of the Canarians, neither black nor white; and some of them paint themselves with white, and some of them with red, and some of them with whatever they find. And some of them paint their faces, and some of them the whole body, and some of them only the eyes, and some of them only the nose. They do not carry arms nor are they acquainted with them, because I showed them swords and they took them by the edge and through ignorance cut themselves. They have no iron. Their javelins are shafts without iron and some of them have at the end a fish tooth.

All of them alike are of good-sized stature and carry themselves well. I saw some who had marks of wounds on their bodies and I made signs to them asking what they were; and they showed me how people from other islands nearby came there and tried to take them, and how they defended themselves; and I believed and believe that — they come here from tierra firme to take them captive. They should be good and intelligent servants, for I see that they say very quickly everything that is said to them; and I believe that they would become Christians very easily, for it seemed to me that they had no religion. Our Lord pleasing, at the time of my departure I will take six of them from here to Your Highnesses in order that they may learn to speak. [...]

Der folgende Eintrag ist nicht in Einklang mit dem spanischen Original zeitlich korrekt eingeordnet. Wir ergänzen das historisch verbriefte Datum:

Saturday 13 October

They came to the ship with dugouts that are made from the trunk of one tree, like a long boat, and all of one piece, and worked marvelously in the fashion of the land, and so big that in some of them 40 and 45 men came. And others smaller, down to some in which came one man alone. They row with a paddle like that of a baker and go marvelously. And if it capsizes on them they then throw themselves in the water, and they right and empty it with calabashes that they carry. They brought balls of spun cotton and parrots and javelins and other little things that it would be tiresome to write down, and they gave everything for anything that was given to them. I was attentive and labored to find out if there was any gold; and I saw that some of them wore a little piece hung in a hole that they have in their noses. And by signs I was able to understand that, going to the south or rounding the island to the south, there was there a king who had large vessels of it and had very much gold."

Wieder wird das wahre Interesse des Kolumbus augenfällig:
Er sucht Gold!

Im spanischen Original findet sich folgende Fußnote unter der Ordnungszahl (1):

Marco Polo versichert im Kap. 106 des Berichts über seine Reise diese Insel gesehen zu haben, über die er eine lange Beschreibung abgibt, und hinzufügt, sie liege auf hoher See un einer Entfernung von distancia 1,500 Meilen vom indischen Kontinent. Dr. Robertson meint, es handle sich wahrscheinlich um Japan. [...]

Das bedeutet, dass zumindest in der spanischen Geschichtsforschung Marco Polo als Vorreiter des Christoph Kolumbus betrachtet wird und dass in der Sichtung der Aufzeichnungen des Entdeckers aus Genua immer noch die These im Raum steht, Kolumbus habe die Westküste Indiens erreicht.

Sunday 14 October

As soon as it dawned I ordered the ship's boat and the launches of the caravels made ready and went north-northeast along the island in order to see what there was in the other part, which was the eastern part. And also to see the villages, and I soon saw two or three, as well as people, who all came to the beach calling to us and giving thanks to God. Some of them brought us water; others, other things to eat; others, when they saw that I did not care to go ashore, threw themselves into the sea swimming and came to us, and we understood that they were asking us if we had come from the heavens. And one old man got into the ship's boat, and others in loud voices called to all the men and women: Come see the men who came from the heavens. Bring them something to eat and drink. Many men came, and many women, each one with something, giving thanks to God, throwing themselves on the ground; and they raised their hands to heaven, and afterward they called to us in loud voices to come ashore. ... And I saw a piece of land formed like an island, although it was not one, on which there were six houses. This piece of land might in two days be cut off to make an island, although I do not see this to be necessary since these people are very naive about weapons, as Your Highnesses will see from seven that I caused to be taken in order to carry them away to you and to learn our language and to return them. Except that, whenever Your Highnesses may command, all of them can be taken to Castile or held captive in this same island; because with 50 men all of them could be held in subjection and can be made to do whatever one might wish. And later [I noticed], near the said islet, groves of trees, the most beautiful that I saw and with their leaves as green as those of Castile in the months of April and May, and lots of water. I looked over the whole of that harbor and afterward returned to the ship and set sail, and I saw so many islands that I did not know how to decide which one I would go to first. And those men whom I had taken told me by signs that they were so very many that they were numberless. And they named by their names more than a hundred. Finally I looked for the largest and to that one I decided to go and so I am doing. It is about five leagues distant from this island of San Salvador, and tile others of them some more, some less. All are very flat without mountains and very fertile and all populated and they make war on one another, even though these men are very simple and very handsome in body...

Hier erleben wir Kolumbus, wie er Angebote der Gastfreundschaft unbeachtet lässt, sich stattdessen Gedanken über die Gefangennahme und Bewachung der Einheimischen macht und am Ende sieben Bewohner der Insel verschleppt.

Sunday 4 November

... The Admiral showed cinnamon and pepper to a few of the Indians of that place (it seems from the samples that he was bringing from Castile) and he says that they recognized it; and they said by signs that nearby to the southeast there was a lot of it. He showed them gold and pearls, and certain old men answered that in a place that they called Bohio there was a vast amount and that they wore it on neck and in ears and on arms and legs; and also pearls. Moreover, he understood that they said that there were big ships and much trade and that all of this was to the southeast. He understood also that, far from there, there were one-eyed men, and others, with snouts of dogs, who ate men, and that as soon as one was taken they cut his throat and drank his blood and cut off his genitals. The Admiral decided to return to the ship to wait for the two men whom he had sent and to decide whether to leave and seek those lands, unless the two men brought good news of that which they desired....

Tuesday 6 November

... They saw many kinds of trees and plants and fragrant flowers; they saw birds of many kinds, different from those of Spain, except partridges and nightingales, which sang, and geese, for of these there are a great many there. Four-footed beasts they did not see, except dogs that did not bark. The earth was very fertile and planted with those manes and bean varieties very different from ours, and with that same millet. And they saw a large quantity of cotton collected and spun and worked; and in a single house they had seen more than five hundred arrobas; and that one might get there each year four thousand quintales . The Admiral says that it seemed to him that they did not sow it and that it produces fruit [i.e., cotton] all year. It is very fine and has a large boll. Everything that those people have, he says, they would give for a very paltry price, and that they would give a large basket of cotton for the tip of a lacing or anything else given to them. They are people, says the Admiral, quite lacking in evil and not warlike; all of them, men and women naked as their mothers bore them. It is true that the women wear a thing of cotton only so big as to cover their genitals and no more. And they are very respectful and not very black, less so than Canarians. I truly believe, most Serene Princes (the Admiral says here), that, given devout religious persons knowing thoroughly the language that they use, soon all of them would become Christian. And so I hope in Our Lord that Your Highnesses, with much diligence, will decide to send such persons in order to bring to the Church such great nations and to convert them, just as you have destroyed those that (lid not want to confess the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and that after your days (for all of us are mortal) you will leave your kingdoms in a tranquil state, free of heresy and evil, and will be well received before the Eternal Creator, may it please Whom to give you long life and great increase of your kingdoms and dominions and the will and disposition to increase the Holy Christian Religion, as up to now you have done, amen. Today I pulled the ship off the beach and made ready to leave on Thursday, in the name of God, and to go to the southeast to seek gold and spices and to explore land. All these are the Admiral's words. He intended to leave on Thursday, but because a contrary wind came up he could not leave until the twelfth of November...

Quelle: E. G. Bourne, ed.,
The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, New York, 1906
abgerufen über, 5. Oktober 2021

— Spanisches Original —

Im Bericht des Kolumbus finden sich zahlreiche orthografische und grammatische Sonderbarkeiten, die zum Teil einer Zeit geschuldet sind, in der sich noch keine einheitliche Schreibweise oder Grammatik durchgesetzt hatten, zum Zweiten einem Manirismus der klassischen lateinischen Literatur entleht sein könnten — Caesar zum Beispiel schrieb von sich selbst in der dritten Person — und die drittens der Tatsache geschuldet sind, dass Kolumbus — anders als er hier behauptet — kein spanischer Muttersprachler war.

Dies ist der Rechenschaftsbericht an die Katholische Königin Isabel. Er belegt die Servilität des Seefahrers gegenüber seiner Geldgeberin, aber auch seine Gier nach Reichtum und Titel.


Porque, cristianísimos, y muy altos, y muy excelentes, y muy poderosos Príncipes, Rey y Reina de las Españas y de las islas de la mar, nuestros Señores, este presente año de 1.492, después de vuestras Altezas haber dado fin á la guerra de los moros que reinaban en Europa, y haber acabado la guerra en la muy grande ciudad de Granada, adonde este presente año á dos dias del mes de Enero por fuerza de armas vide poner las banderas Reales de vuestras Altezas en las torres de Alfambra, que es la fortaleza de la dicha ciudad, y vide salir al Rey Moro á las puertas de la ciudad y besar las Reales manos de vuestras Altezas y del Príncipe mi Señor, y luego en aquel presente mes por la información que yo había dado á vuestras Altezas de las tierras de India, y de un Príncipe que es llamado Gran Can que quiere decir en nuestro romance Rey de los Reyes, como muchas veces él y sus antecesores habían enviado á Roma á pedir doctores en nuestra santa fé porque le enseñasen en ella, y que nunca el Santo Padre le había proveído, y se perdían tantos pueblos creyendo en idolatrías, é recibiendo en sí sectas de perdición; vuestras Altezas, como católicos cristianos y Príncipes amadores de la santa fé cristiana y acrecentadores della, y enemigos de la secta de Mahoma y de todas idolatrías y heregías pensaron de enviarme á mí Cristóbal Colon á las dichas partidas de India para ver los dichos príncipes, y los pueblos y tierras, y la disposición dellas y de todo, y la manera que se pudiera tener para la conversión dellas á nuestra santa fé; y ordenaron que yo no fuese por tierra al Oriente, por donde se costumbra de andar salvo por el camino de Occidente, por donde hasta hoy no sabemos por cierta fé que haya pasado nadie. Así que después de haber echado fuera todos los judíos de todos vuestros reinos y señoríos, en el mismo mes de Enero mandaron vuestras Altezas á mí que con armada suficiente me fuese á las dichas partidas de India; y para ello me hicieron grandes mercedes, y me anoblecieron que dende en adelante yo me llamase Don , y fuese Almirante mayor de la mar océana é Visorey y Gobernador perpetuo de todas las islas y Tierra-firme que yo descubriese y ganase, y de aquí adelante se descubriesen y ganasen en la mar océana, y así sucediese mi hijo mayor, y así de grado en grado para siempre jamas:

Partí yo de la ciudad de Granada á 12 dias del mes de Mayo del mesmo año de 1492 en Sábado: vine á la villa de Palos, que es puerto de mar, adonde armé yo tres navios muy aptos para semejante fecho; y partí del dicho puerto muy abastecido de muy muchos mantenimientos y de mucha gente de la mar, á tres dias del mes de Agosto del dicho año en un Viernes, antes de la salida del sol con media hora , y llevé el camino de las islas de Canaria de vuestras Altezas, que son en la dicha mar océana , para de allí tomar mi derrota, y navegar tanto que yo llegase á las Indias, y dar la embajada de vuestras Altezas á aquellos príncipes y cumplir lo que así me habían mandado; y para esto pensé de escribir todo este viage muy puntualmente de dia en dia todo lo que yo hiciese y viese y pasase como adelante se verá. También, Señores Príncipes, allende de escribir cada noche lo que el dia pasare, y el dia lo que la noche navegare, tengo propósito de hacer carta nueva de navegar, en la cual situaré toda la mar y tierras del mar Océano en sus propios lugares debajo su viento; y mas, componer un libro, y poner todo por el semejante por pintura, por latitud del equinocial y longitud del Occidente, y sobre todo cumple mucho que yo olvide el sueño y tiente mucho el navegar porque así cumple, las cuales serán gran trabajo.

Fünf Monate nach seiner Abreise aus Granada erreichte Christoph Kolumbus die bis heute so genannten "West-Indischen Inseln". Dies ist sein Bericht über seinen ersten Landgang, auf dem er eine Insel — ohne Absprache mit deren Bewohner — für die Katholischen Könige Spaniens in Besitz nimmt.

Jueves 11 de Octubre

Navegó al Ouesudueste, tuvieron mucha mar mas que en todo el viage habían tenido. Vieron pardelas y un junco verde junto á la nao. Vieron los de la carabela Pinta una caña y un palo, y tomaron otro palillo labrado á lo que parecia con hierro, y un pedazo de caña y otra yerba que nace en tierra, y una tablilla. Los de la carabela Niña también vieron otras se­ ñales de tierra,y un palillo cargado descaramojos. Con estas señales respiraron y alegráronse todos. Anduvieron en este dia hasta puesto el sol 27 leguas.

Después del sol puesto navegó á su primer camino al Oueste: andarian 12 millas cada hora, y hasta dos horas después de medía noche andarian 90 millas, que son 22 leguas y media. Y porque la carabela Pinta era mas velera é iba delante del Almirante, halló tierra y hizo las señas quel Almirante habia mandado. Esta tierra vido primero un marinero que se decía Rodrigo de Triana; puesto que el Almirante á las diez de la noche, estando en el castillo de popa vido lumbre, aunque fue cosa tan cerrada que no quiso afirmar que fuese tierra; pero llamó á Pero Gutiérrez, respostero destrados del Rey, é díjole, que parecía lumbre, que mirase él, y así lo hizo y vídola: díjolo también á Rodrigo Sánchez de Segovia quel Rey y la Reina enviaban en el armada por veedor, el cual no vido nada porque no estaba en lugar dó la pudiese ver. Después quel Almirante lo dijo se vido una vez ó dos, y era como una candelilla de cera que se alzaba y levantaba, lo cual á pocos pareciera ser indicio de tierra. Pero el Almirante tuvo por cierto estar junto á la tierra. Por lo cual cuando dijeron la Salve, que la acostumbran decir é cantar á su manera todos los marineros y se hallan todos, rogó y amonestólos el Almirante que hiciesen buena guardia al castillo de proa, y mirasen bien por la tierra, y que al que le dijese primero que via tierra le daria luego un jubón de seda, sin las otras mercedes que los Reyes habían prometido, que eran 40,000 maravedís de juro á quien primero la viese. A las dos horas después de media noche pareció la tierra, de la cual estarían 2 leguas. Amañaron todas las velas, y quedaron con el treo que es la vela grande y sin bonetas, y pusiéronse á la corda temporizando hasta el día Viernes que llegaron á una isleta de los Lucayos, que se llamaba en lengua de indios Guanahani. Luego vieron gente desnuda, y el Almirante salió á tierra en la barca armada, y Martin Alonso Pinzón y Vicente Anes, su hermano, que era capitán de la Niña. Sacó el Almirante ia bandera Real y los capitanes con dos banderas de la Cruz Verde, que llevaba el Almirante en todos los navios por seña con una F y una Y : encima de cada letra su corona, una de un cabo de la y otra de otro. Puestos en tierra vieron árboles muy verdes y aguas muchas y frutas de diversas maneras. El Almirante llamó á los dos capitanes y á los demas que saltaron en tierra, y á Rodrigo Descovedo, Escribano de toda el armada, y á Rodrigo Sánchez de Segovia, y dijo que le diesen por fé y testimonio como él por ante todos tomaba, como de hecho tomó, posesión de la dicha isla por el Rey é por la Reina sus señores, haciendo las protestaciones que se requirian, como mas largo se contiene en los testimonios que allí se hicieron por escripto. Luego se ayuntó allí mucha gente de la isla.

Es folgt eine erste Beschreibung der Inselbewohner, die nackt sind und freundlich, die sich über Geschenke freuen, die — wie Kolumbus ausdrücklich betont — keinen Wert darstellen, ihrerseits Geschenke erwidern und kein Eisen kennen.

Esto que se sigue son palabras formales del Almirante, en su libro de su primera navegación y descubrimiento de estas Indias. "Yo (dice él) porque nos tuviesen mucha amistad, porque conoscí que era gente que mejor se libraría y convertiría á nuestra Santa Fé con amor que no por fuerza; les di á algunos de ellos unos bonetes colorados y unas cuentas de vidrios que se ponían al pescuezo, y otras cosas muchas de poco valor con que hobieron mucho placer y quedaron tanto nuestros que era maravilla. Los cuales después venían á las barcas de los navios adonde nós estábamos, nadando y nos traian papagayos y hilo de algodón en ovillos y azagayas, y otras cosas muchas, y nos las trocaban por otras cosas que nós les dábamos, como cuentecilias de vidrio y cascabeles. En fin todo tomaban y daban de aquello que tenían de buena voluntad. Mas me pareció que era gente muy pobre de todo. Ellos andan todos desnudos como su madre los parió, y también las mugeres, aunque no vide mas de una farto moza y todos los que yo vi eran todos mancebos, que ninguno vide de edad de mas de treinta años: muy bien hechos, de muy fermosos cuerpos, y muy buenas caras: los cabellos gruesos cuasi como sedas de cola de caballos, ó cortos: los cabellos traen por encima de las cejas, salvo unos pocos detras que traen largos, que jamas cortan: dellos se pintan de prieto, y ellos son de la color de los canarios , ni negros ni blancos , y dellos se pintan de blanco, y dellos de colorado, y dellos de lo que fallan, y dellos se pintan las caras, y dellos lodo el cuerpo, y dellos solo los ojos, y dellos solo el nariz. Ellos no traen armas ni las cognocen, porque les amostré espadas y las tomaban por el filo, y se cortaban con ignorancia. No tienen algún fierro: sus azagayas son unas varas sin fierro, y algunas de ellas tienen al cabo un diente de pece, y otras de otras cosas.

Ellos todos á una mano son de buena estatura de grandeza, y buenos gestos , bien hechos; yo vide algunos que tenían señales de feridas en sus cuerpos, y les hice señas que era aquello, y ellos me amostraron como allí venían gente de otras islas que estaban acerca y les querían tomar, y se defendían; y yo creí, é creo, que aquí vienen de tierra firme á tomarlos por captivos. Ellos deben ser buenos servidores y de buen ingenio, que veo que muy presto dicen todo lo que les decía, y creo que ligeramente se harían cristianos, que me pareció que ninguna secta tenían. Yo, placiendo á nuestro Señor, levaré de aquí al tiempo de mi partida seis á V. A. para que deprendan fablar.

Dies ist das Original-Datum, das im englischen Text zur Korrektur eungefügt wurde:

Sábado 13 de Octubre

Ellos vinieron á la nao con almadias, que son hechas del pie de un árbol, como un barco luengo, y todo de un pedazo, y labrado muy á maravilla según la tierra, y grandes en que en algunas venían 40 ó 45 hombres, y otras mas pequeñas, fasta haber dellas en que venia un solo hombre. Remaban con una pala como de fornero, y anda á maravilla; y si se le trastorna luego se echan todos á nadar, y la enderezan y vacian con calabazas que traen ellos. Traían ovillos de algodón filado y papagayos, y azagayas, y otras cositas que seria tedio de escrebir, y todo daban por cualquiera cosa que se los diese. Y yo estaba atento y trabajaba de saber si había oro, y vide que algunos dellos traian un pedazuelo colgado en un agujero que tienen á la nariz, y por señas pude entender que yendo al Sur ó volviendo la isla por el Sur, que estaba allí un rey que tenia grandes vasos dello, y tenia muy mucho.

Wieder wird das wahre Interesse des Kolumbus augenfällig:
Er sucht Gold!

Im spanischen Original findet sich folgende Fußnote unter der Ordnungszahl (1):

Marco Polo en el cap. 106 de la relación de su viage asegura haber visto esta isla, de la cual hace una larga descripción, y añade que estaba situada en alta mar, á distancia de 1,500 millas del continente de la India. El Dr. Robertson dice que probablemente es el Japón. Recherches hist, sur rinde ancienne.

Das bedeutet, dass zumindest in der spanischen Geschichtsforschung Marco Polo als Vorreiter des Christoph Kolumbus betrachtet wird und dass in der Sichtung der Aufzeichnungen des Entdeckers aus Genua immer noch die These im Raum steht, Kolumbus habe die Westküste Indiens erreicht.

Domingo 14 de Octubre

«En amaneciendo mandé aderezar el batel de la nao y las barcas de las carabelas, y fue al luengo de la isla , en el camino del Nornordeste, para ver la otra parle, que era de la otra parle del Leste que había, y también para ver las poblaciones, y vide luego dos ó tres y la gente, que venían todos á la playa llamándonos y dando gracias á Dios; los unos nos traian agua, otros otras cosas de comer; otros, cuando veian que yo no cu raba de ir á tierra, se echaban á la mar nadando y venían, y entendíamos que nos preguntaban si eramos venidos del cielo; y vino uno viejo en el batel dentro, y otros á voces grandes llamaban todos hombres y mugeres: venid á ver los hombres que vinieron del cielo: traedles de comer y de beber. Vinieron muchos y muchas mugeres, cada uno con algo, dando gracias á Dios , echándose al suelo , y levantaban las manos al cielo, y después á voces nos llamaban que fuésemos á tierra : mas yo temía de ver una grande restinga de piedras que cerca toda aque lla isla al rededor, y entre medias queda hondo y puerto para cuantas naos hay en toda la cristiandad, y la entrada dello muy angosta% Es verdad que dentro desta cinta hay algunas bajas, mas la mar no se mueve mas que dentro en un pozo. Y para ver todo esto me moví esta mañana, porque supiese dar de todo
Quelle: Colección de los viajes y descubrimientos que
hicieron por mar los españoles desde fines del siglo XV
Martín Fernández de Navarrete, Madrid 1853

Katholische Könige
Ferdinand und Isabel

Spanisch: Fernando, Isabel


Galileo Galilei



Johann Friedrich Böttger



Maurisches Spanien



Übersetzer Toledo



Eratosthenes, im Alt-Griechischen:






Fernando Magellan und Juan Sebastián Elcano



Edwin Powell Hubble

November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953.
American astronomer. He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and observational cosmology. Hubble proved that many objects previously thought to be clouds of dust and gas and classified as "nebulae" were actually galaxies beyond the Milky Way. He [scaled] galactic and extragalactic distances.

Hubble provided evidence that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the Earth, a property now known as "Hubble's law", despite the fact that it had been both proposed and demonstrated observationally two years earlier by Georges Lemaître. The Hubble–Lemaître law implies that the universe is expanding.

Hubble's name is most widely recognized for the Hubble Space Telescope, which was named in his honor.

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 9. Oktober 2021

Hubble konnte nachweisen, dass viele Himmelsobjekte, von denen man vorher angenommen hatte, sie seien Staub- und Gaswolken und die als "nebulae" klassifiziert worden waren, tatsächlich Galaxien jenseits unserer Milchstraße waren.

Hubble veröffentlichte zwei Jahre nach Georges Lemaître (s.u.) denselben Zusammenhang zwischen der Rotverschiebung und der Verteilung extragalaktischer Nebel, zog jedoch nicht die physikalische Schlussfolgerung einer Expansion des Weltalls und vermutete ein bisher unentdecktes Naturprinzip hinter der Rotverschiebung. Dennoch wird in der öffentlichen Wahrnehmung diese Entdeckung Lemaîtres häufig Hubble zugeschrieben.

Interpretiert man die Rotverschiebung als Dopplereffekt, so lässt sich ableiten, dass sich fast alle beobachteten Galaxien von uns entfernen. Hubble war der erste, der einen direkt proportionalen Zusammenhang zwischen Rotverschiebung und Entfernung der Galaxien aufstellte, was bedeuten würde, dass sich diese fernen Weltinseln umso schneller von uns fortbewegen, je weiter sie entfernt sind. Hubble selbst benutzte den Ausdruck „scheinbare Geschwindigkeit“, da er zurückhaltend war in der physikalischen Interpretation der Beobachtungen.

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 9. Oktober 2021

Georges Lemaître

Aufgrund der damals bekannten Verteilung der Galaxien im Raum sowie der bereits nachgewiesenen Rotverschiebung aller Objekte im Weltall postulierte Lemaître im Juni 1927 die Expansion des Weltalls.

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 9. Oktober 2021

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck

* 23. April 1858 in Kiel, Herzogtum Holstein.
† 4. Oktober 1947 in Göttingen.
Deutscher Physiker auf dem Gebiet der theoretischen Physik.
Er gilt als Begründer der Quantenphysik.
Für die Entdeckung einer später nach ihm benannten Konstanten in einer physikalischen Grundgleichung, des Planckschen Wirkungsquantums, erhielt er 1919 den Nobelpreis für Physik des Jahres 1918.

Das Plancksche Wirkungsquantum, auch Planck-Konstante h genannt, ist das Verhältnis von Energie E und Frequenz f eines Photons [oder Lichtteilchens], entsprechend der Formel

E = h · f

Die gleiche Beziehung gilt allgemein zwischen der Energie eines Teilchens [...] und der Frequenz seiner quantenmechanischen Phase.

Die Entdeckung des Wirkungsquantums durch Max Planck begründete die Quantenphysik. Das Wirkungsquantum verknüpft Eigenschaften, die vorher in der klassischen Physik entweder nur Teilchen oder nur Wellen zugeschrieben wurden.
Das ware die Basis des Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus der modernen Physik.

Planck betrachtete seinerzeit das Wirkungsquantum neben der Gravitationskonstante und der Lichtgeschwindigkeit als die dritte der fundamentalen Naturkonstanten der Physik. Zusammen bilden diese Konstanten die Grundlage des natürlichen Einheitensystems der Planck-Einheiten. Er gab der von ihm entdeckten Konstanten den Namen "elementares Wirkungsquantum", weil sie bei "elementaren Schwingungsvorgängen" eine entscheidende Rolle spielt [...]

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 11. Oktober 2021

Alle Quanten-Effekte spielen erst in sehr kleinen Dimensionen eine Rolle, wie die Berechnung der Planck-Länge zeigt:

"The Planck length (lP) is a very small unit of length. [...] It is about 1.616255×10-35 m or about 10-20 times the size of a proton."

Also ungefähr:
0,000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 02 Meter

Einstein und die Lichtquanten

Albert Einstein analysierte 1905 den photoelektrischen Effekt, der ebenfalls mit der klassischen Physik unvereinbar ist. Einstein war einer der wenigen Physiker, die die fundamentale Bedeutung von Plancks Arbeit früh erkannten und nutzten. Er konnte den Effekt mit Hilfe der Lichtquantenhypothese erklären, der zufolge auch das Licht Quanteneigenschaften aufweist. Demnach besteht [...] die elektromagnetische Strahlung [darunter zählt auch das Licht] selbst aus teilchenartigen Objekten, den Lichtquanten, deren Energie je nach Frequenz gegeben ist. Später wurde diese Gleichung die Einsteinsche Gleichung für das Lichtquant genannt. Damit erkannte er erstmals den Welle-Teilchen-Dualismus, ein neues Problem für die Physik. Nicht zuletzt deshalb brauchte auch diese Analyse Jahre, um sich durchzusetzen. 1921 brachte sie Einstein den Nobelpreis ein.

/font> Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 11. Oktober 2021

Erwin Schrödinger

Mitbegründer der Quantenmechanik

Quelle: Wikipedia
abgerufen 15. Oktober 2021





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